Oracle has announced the next generation of the Exadata Database Machine platform - Oracle Exadata X10M
Exadata X10M delivers unmatched performance, availability, and scalability for all database workloads. At the same price as the previous generation, Exadata X10M provides significantly more capacity and value for large and small enterprises.
The new version of Exadata features fourth-generation AMD EPYC processors and offers significant performance improvements with up to 3x higher transaction throughput and up to 3.6x faster analytic queries on database servers. With the X10M, high-capacity storage servers can hold 22% more data, and Extreme Flash Storage servers now offer 2.4х the capacity of previous systems. Database servers support 50% more memory, allowing the deployment of more databases and more demanding workloads on a single system. The combination of improved performance with increased storage and memory capacity enables greater database consolidation and significantly lower costs across all workloads. The greater compute and storage densities offered by the Exadata X10M platform also reduce the size of systems customers need to meet their needs, reducing data center power, cooling and floor space costs and increasing resiliency.
Exadata X10M is built using the latest processors, networking and storage technologies. The platform includes numerous optimizations to system hardware, Exadata software, and Oracle databases for unparalleled performance and value for online transaction processing (OLTP), analytics and machine learning (ML), and mixed workloads. Exadata's scale-out architecture and the scale-up capabilities of 4th Gen AMD EPYC processors enable organizations to meet their data management needs in the public cloud, hybrid cloud, and on-premises deployments.
The Exadata X10M platform for data center deployment includes Exadata Database Machine X10M and Exadata Cloud@Customer X10M. Exadata Cloud@Customer uses the same architecture, software and infrastructure as the Exadata Database Machine, enabling customers to run automated Oracle Exadata Database Service Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) and a fully managed autonomous Oracle database in data centers to benefit from Automation and OCI Economics. Exadata Database Service and Autonomous Database also run on Exadata Cloud Infrastructure powered by AMD EPYC processors in OCI.
With strong OLTP and analytics performance and a significant increase in consolidation capabilities, the Exadata X10M quarter rack still has the same price as the Exadata X9M - great value for money. The enhancements to Exadata X10M considerably reduce infrastructure costs, lower system and database administration, and cut power consumption compared to the Exadata X9M platform.
High-performance OLTP and modern workloads such as IoT, blockchain, gaming, financial trading and eCommerce require the world's fastest OLTP database machine, which now it's even faster. Each of the Exadata X10M database servers has 3x the number of Exadata X9M database servers cores and 1 TB/sec of memory bandwidth. Because each database server core can handle much larger OLTP workloads than their previous generation equivalents, customers can increase overall OLTP throughput by up to 3 times.
Each Exadata X10M storage server provides 2.8 million I/Os per second, which is 21% more than the X9M. Using DDR5 DRAM in intelligent storage servers, read latency for Exadata RDMA Memory (XRMEM) is reduced from 19 to 17 microseconds.
Analytics workloads also provide a significant performance boost. Exadata X10M increases the number of processor cores in each storage server to 64, providing greater parallelism when running analytical queries. Smart Scan throughput offloads SQL processing to Exadata intelligent storage servers, reaching up to 1 TB per second mark in a single rack.
Database consolidation on Exadata reduces the complexity and overhead of running more and larger databases. Increases in the number of cores and memory on database servers, flash and hard drive capacity, and SQL processing cores in storage servers mean running more Oracle databases on less Exadata infrastructure than in the previous generation is possible. Higher consolidation density reduces capital costs, simplifies administration, and improves energy efficiency, allowing you to run your Oracle database fleet more efficiently.
Exadata X10M database servers use two 96-core 4th-generation AMD CPUs, delivering 3x the number of cores and greater per-core performance than the Exadata X9M generation. The Exadata X10M's memory capacity and CPU core density have been increased to meet customer demands for ever-increasing database consolidation needs.
DDR5 DRAM memory configurations are now available in 512 GB, 1.5 TB, 2.25 TB and 3 TB per database server. The memory bandwidth of Exadata X10M database servers is 2.5x that of Exadata X9M, significantly speeding up memory bandwidth-sensitive operations.
Local storage on the database servers continues to use two 3.84 TB NVMe SSDs, expandable to four 3.84 TB drives, all of which are hot-swappable.
Exadata X10M has made the transition from the PCIe 4 interface for network cards to the fastest PCIe 5 interface available at the moment and uses the latest generation of dual-port RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE) network cards to increase network throughput. In addition, the X10M supports up to five client NICs for more flexible network connectivity.
Each Exadata X10M High-capacity Storage Server uses two 32-core 4th generation AMD processors, doubling the number of storage server cores in the Exadata Database Machine and increasing the number of cores from 24 to 32 for the Exadata Cloud@Customer X10M compared to the X9M. Memory is significantly increased at the storage tier to 1.5TB DD5 DRAM, up from 256GB in the X9M.
Like the Exadata Database Server, the memory bandwidth in storage servers increases by up to 2.5x. Each storage server includes four performance-optimized flash cards, each up to 6.8 TB in size. The RoCE Network Fabric moved to the same dual-port RoCE network cards used in the database server. The capacity of the 12 hard drives has been increased from 18 TB to 22 TB each, increasing the total raw capacity per storage server from 216 TB to 264 TB, a 22% increase over the X9M.
Exadata X10M Extreme Flash Storage Servers take data storage to the next level with four 30.72 TB all-flash drives for a total net storage capacity of 122.88 TB, 2.4 times more than in X9M (51.2 TB).
As with the X10M High Capacity Storage Server, four 6.8TB performance-optimized flash cards are dedicated to flash cache. Extreme Flash Storage Servers are similar to high-capacity storage servers and feature new 4th Gen AMD 32-core processors, upgraded memory, and dual-port RoCE network cards.
Exadata X10M Extended storage servers feature the new 4th generation AMD 32-core processor. Memory capacity has increased from 96 to 128 GB. Like Database and other Storage Servers, the RoCE Network Fabric uses dual-port RoCE network cards. The 12 hard drives have increased to 22 TB each, and the total of 264 TB per storage server, up from 18 TB each and 216 TB per storage server in the X9M, a 22% increase.
Exadata Storage Expansion Rack X10M starting configurations support the latest Exadata X10M High-capacity and Extreme Flash Storage Servers. Additional High-capacity, Extreme Flash and Extended Storage Servers can be added to existing X8M, X9M, and X10M Storage Expansion Racks, allowing customers to scale storage needs to meet the most demanding database deployments. Exadata X10M Extended Storage Servers feature the new 32-core 4th-generation AMD CPU. Memory has been increased from 96 to 128 GB. Like the Database and other Storage Servers, the RoCE Network Fabric utilizes dual-port RoCE network cards. The 12 hard disk drives increase in capacity to 22 TB each, with a total capacity of 264 TB per storage server, up from 18 TB each and 216 TB per storage server in X9M, a 22% increase.
Capacity On Demand has been available since Exadata X4 and continues on Exadata X10M, allowing customers to reduce the number of database software licenses required. Each X10M database server must have a minimum of 14 cores enabled during installation. Oracle Exadata Deployment Assistant (OEDA) implements CoD during the installation process. You can then increase the number of active cores over time as the demand for computing resources on the database servers increases.
Oracle announced Exadata System Software 23.1 back in March 2023. In addition to X10M hardware support, version 23.1 adds several features to Exadata, including an operating system upgrade from Oracle Linux 7 and UEK 5 to Oracle Linux 8 and UEK 6.
Starting with X10M, customers using Database In-Memory Columnar Caching in Storage Servers gain up to a 25% increase in the effective capacity with a new compression algorithm. This optimization increases the capacity and efficiency of in-memory columnar data on storage servers.
With the increase in max memory on the X10M Database servers comes an increase in memory available to virtual machines. The maximum amount that can be allocated to a VM is 2.73 TB per database server on a 3 TB server configuration. It is worth noting that there is no way to over-provision physical memory - the minimum is 16 GB for each virtual machine. Exadata X10M continues to allow up to 2x virtual CPU (vCPU) over-provisioning on memory configurations greater than 512GB where Capacity-On-Demand is inactive. With two 96-core CPUs (two vCPUs per core), the Exadata X10M provides 760 vCPUs (four vCPUs reserved for the host) available on each database server.
The database and storage servers have added support for LDAP Identification and Kerberos Authentication. This improves Exadata's overall security posture and, as the name suggests, centralizes identification and authentication functions of administrator accounts, standardizes password complexity, aging, and reset procedures, and improves the on and off-boarding experience.
Exadata RDMA Memory (XRMEM) in Exadata X10M storage servers is used as a general read accelerator. The XRMEM Data Accelerator is a memory cache tier in front of Flash Cache that reduces latency when accessing remotely stored data by orders of magnitude. Using RDMA for remote memory access, XRMEM Data Accelerator bypasses the network and I/O stack, eliminating costly CPU interrupts and context switches, and reducing latency by more than 10 times, from 200 microseconds to less than 17 microseconds. Smart Exadata System Software also ensures data is mirrored across storage servers for fault tolerance. Exadata's unique end-to-end integration between Oracle Database and Exadata storage servers automatically caches the hottest data blocks between the Buffer Cache on the database servers and XRMEM and Flash Cache on the storage servers. XRMEM is a shared storage tier across all nodes, which means the aggregate performance of this cache can be dynamically used by any database instance on any database server. XRMEM is a significant advantage over general-purpose storage architectures, which preclude sharing memory and storage resources across database instances.
Exadata System Software supports Oracle Grid Infrastructure 19.15 and higher, and Oracle database versions 11g through 19c. Exadata 23.1, including Oracle Linux 8 and UEK 6, is the foundation of the Exadata X10M family and is fundamental to the extreme scalability of next-generation Exadata systems.
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